Scientific Journal Of King Faisal University
Basic and Applied Sciences


Scientific Journal of King Faisal University / Basic and Applied Sciences

The Effects of Adding Xanthan Gum as a Fat Replacer on the Quality Characteristics of Beef Burgers

(Lina Abdulaziz, Sabah Yaziji and Abdulhakim Azizieh)


The chemical, oxidative, microbiological, physical, and sensory properties of low-fat beef burgers containing varying levels of xanthan gum (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) as a fat replacer were evaluated. The partial replacement of fat with xanthan gum resulted in a significant stabilizing of the formula during four different periods of being frozen in storage (0, 30, 60, and 90 days). A chemical analysis of low-fat beef burger formulations (25%, 20%, and 15%) revealed that high concentrates of xanthan gum (1.5% and 1%) had significant capacity for the retention of the nutrients in the burger—especially proteins, ash, and moisture. The freezing method had a higher impact in reducing the microbial load of the beef burger; adding more fats to burger formulations could be a potential source of microbial contamination. The significant increase of the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances’ (TBARS’) value in the high-fat control formulation (30%) showed a greater oxidative degradation of lipids during the frozen storage periods compared to low-fat formulations (20% and 15%). Physical analysis revealed that low-fat formulations containing xanthan gum had a significantly lower cooking loss and shrinkage rate than that of the high-fat control (C) formulation. The sensory evaluation showed that a high percentage of xanthan gum (1.5 and 1%) had a significant effect of preserving the texture of low-fat burgers compared to the control sample, without significant differences to other sensory attributes. Thus, adding xanthan gum improved the quality characteristics of low-fat beef burgers compared to the high-fat control formulation while frozen and during the cooking process.

Beef meat, fat replacer, freezing storage, low-fat burger, quality characteristics



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