Scientific Journal Of King Faisal University
Basic and Applied Sciences


Scientific Journal of King Faisal University / Basic and Applied Sciences

The role of cluster of differentiation 74 in cancer and cancer immunomodulation

(Hussain Al Ssadh , Waleed Alabdulmonem and Nelson Fernández)


In normal cells cluster of differentiation 74 (CD74) acts as a chaperone of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR by formation of a trimetric structure. In the lack of tumor presence most antigen presenting cells are expressed. However, recent data suggests that CD74 is major link between proinflammatory responses and tumorigenesis but that detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. CD74 is also thought to be involved in signalling pathways via macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CD44; controlling the proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. The role CD74 as an accessory signal receptor on surface and its capability to interact with other signaling molecules presents CD74 as a crucial therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. This review will discuss the role of CD74 in several aspects including antigen presentation, cancer immunomodulation as well as the interaction of CD74 along with MIF and CD44. The overall aim of this review is to translate the recent outcome from the previous study to the clinical level and to study the expression and the role of CD74 in human breast cancer in Saudi population. Comparison between normal people and patients could be applied. We are also planning to link the level of CD74 expression to different stage of breast cancer so CD74 could potentially be used as a ‘biomarker signature’ to monitor different stages of breast cancer. Keywords: Antigen presentation, Invariant chain, IFN-γ, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Tumorigenesis